Suggested Further Reading#

The KNMI Climate Explorer is great resource to interactively work with both observational and climate model data, including extreme value analysis:

For recent studies on if/how anthropogenic climate change contributed to a particular extreme event in the recent news, follow World Weather Attribution (

To access a large amount of climate data (in particular model data), including some computational resources for analysis, check out the Pangeo platform (which was one of the inspirations for Climatematch) at

There is a wealth of recent literature on extreme events in climate, one of the most topical areas of climate change research of the past decade.

Extreme events and attribution:

  • Otto, Friederike E.L. “Attribution of Weather and Climate Events.” Annual Review of Environment and Resources 42, no. 1 (October 17, 2017): 627–46.

  • Stott, Peter A., Nikolaos Christidis, Friederike E. L. Otto, Ying Sun, Jean-Paul Vanderlinden, Geert Jan van Oldenborgh, Robert Vautard, et al. “Attribution of Extreme Weather and Climate-Related Events.” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 7, no. 1 (January 1, 2016): 23–41.

  • Otto, Friederike E.L. “Extreme Weather and Climate.” In Environmental Science. Oxford, UK: Oxford Bibliographies, 2017.

  • Robin, Yoann, and Aurélien Ribes. “Nonstationary Extreme Value Analysis for Event Attribution Combining Climate Models and Observations.” Advances in Statistical Climatology, Meteorology and Oceanography 6, no. 2 (November 18, 2020): 205–21.

  • Seneviratne, S. I., X. Zhang, M. Adnan, W. Badi, C. Dereczynski, A. Di Luca, S. Ghosh, et al. “Weather and Climate Extreme Events in a Changing Climate.” In Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, A. Pirani, S. L. Connors, C. Péan, S. Berger, N. Caud, et al. Cambridge University Press, 2021.

An example study on how thresholds can exacerbate an increasing frequency of extreme events:

  • Mora, Camilo, Bénédicte Dousset, Iain R. Caldwell, Farrah E. Powell, Rollan C. Geronimo, Coral R. Bielecki, Chelsie W. W. Counsell, et al. “Global Risk of Deadly Heat.” Nature Climate Change 7, no. 7 (July 2017): 501–6.

For a more in-depth mathematical treatment of the concepts discussed: